By Tse-Chao Hua, Bao-Lin Liu, Haimei Zhang
Freeze-drying is a crucial upkeep method for heat-sensitive prescribed drugs and meals. items are first frozen then dried in a vacuum at low temperature via sublimation and desorption, instead of through the applying of warmth. The ensuing goods might be saved at room temperature for lengthy classes. This informative textual content addresses either ideas and perform during this region. the 1st bankruptcy introduces freeze-drying. The authors then assessment the basics of the procedure, heat-mass move analyses, modelling of the drying method and the apparatus hired. extra chapters specialize in freeze-drying of foodstuff, freeze-drying of prescription drugs and the protecting brokers and ingredients utilized. the ultimate bankruptcy covers the real topics of disinfection, sterilization and technique validation.
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Extra resources for Freeze-drying of pharmaceutical and food products
Introduction 15 the proportion which freeze dried food occupies in the market has achieved quite high level. 3 Freeze-drying of pharmaceutical products Most products of modem medicine are heat-sensitive, such as liposome, interferon, human growth hormone, as well as Chinese herbal medicine. These products are sensitive to temperature, mainly to higher temperature. In the production of heat-sensitive drugs, to prevent the drug degeneration or the decreasing of drug quality by overheating, a widely used technology is freeze-drying.
Moreover, as freeze-drying is the final stage in the manufacture of biological drugs, the quality of freeze drying process is playing a key role in the drugs quality. In order to prevent the denaturation of protein and the damage ofmembrane structure of biological drugs, it is necessary to add appropriate protective agents for freeze-drying. The type of agents and the concentration are varies with different drugs. The type, concentration, and Ph value of the protective agent can have important influence on the quality of the freeze dried biological drugs.
Through a very rapid cooling, the thin particles of dilute solution can be vitrified. The required cooling rates are the orders of magnitude as high as I 04 -106 K / s . Because of reasons like high heat capacity of water, complete glass condition is merely possible for very small samples. In practice, complete vitrification of liquid dilute solutions of the food and the drugs is almost impossible, only the partial glassy condition can be achieved. At present, there are 3 ways for aqueous solution to achieve glassy state.