By Louis Rey, Joan C. May
Freeze drying, or lyophilization, is a good proven know-how utilized in the upkeep of diverse pharmaceutical and organic items. This powerful dehydration approach consists of the elimination of water from frozen fabrics through the direct sublimation of ice. in recent times, this procedure has met with many adjustments, as have the rules that influence lyophilization practices. This new version of Freeze Drying/ Lyophilization of Pharmaceutical and organic items addresses those alterations with up-to-date and new chapters on rising advancements in lyophilization expertise, learn, and strategies. supplying either a systematic and business point of view, this complete textual content is a useful source for all those that use freeze drying expertise.
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Additional info for Freeze-Drying Lyophilization Of Pharmaceutical & Biological Products, Third Edition (Drugs and the Pharmaceutical Sciences, 206)
As temperature decreases, the number of intact bonds increases and the coordination number is more close to the ideal value 4. Because of the large free volume available, this means that the temperature decrease is associated with an increase of the local molecular volume. Of course, this effect superimposes to the classical anharmonic effects, which dominate at high temperature, when the number of intact bonds is smaller. The consequence of both effects is a maximum on the temperature dependence of the liquid density.
In section 1, the liquids are frozen in regular droplets, for instance, as a “rain” falling against a countercurrent of cold air at atmospheric pressure. 1 mbar. 001 mbar range. There they accomplish the secondary drying. -In section 4, a final lock allows the freeze-dried material to be brought back to atmospheric pressure by injection of a dry, neutral gas such as nitrogen or argon and they are distributed “by the number” into previously sterilized vials that are finally capped. such a process is tremendous, and if we have granules of 1 to 3 mm size, the whole freeze-drying operation might take less than 30 minutes.
Recently, the structure of water confined in the cylindrical pores of MCM-41 zeolites with two different pore sizes (21 and 28 A) has been studied by X-ray diffraction (21) over a temperature range of 223 to 298 K. For the capillary-condensed samples, there is a tendency to form a more tetrahedral-like hydrogen-bonded water structure at subzero temperatures in both the pore sizes. The more extensive results concern the structure of water confined in a Vycor glass (47), which is a porous silica glass, characterized by a quite sharp distribution of cylindrical interconnected pores and hydrophilic surfaces.