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By Marsha Keith M. Schuchard

This dissertation examines the position of Freemasonry and similar mystery societies within the transmission of the occult traditions in English literary background from the 17th to 20th centuries. The research attracts upon fresh Renaissance and Hebrew scholarship to outline these components of vision-inducement and magical theories of artwork which have been built into the syncretic Renaissance culture of Cabalistic and airtight symbolism. After the book and next suppression of this occult culture throughout the Rosicrucian agitation in Germany, Rosicrucianism was once assimilated into the key traditions of Freemasonry in England within the mid-seventeenth century. Many English literary figures, akin to John Dee, Francis Bacon, Elias Ashmole, and John Milton, have been enthusiastic about this theosophical, millenial reform circulation.

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151) Though the general concept of the intellectus agens. or divine influx, was widely recognized in the Middle Ages, Abulafia's theory was actually a Judaized version of systematic Yoga as practised by Indian theosophers. An important part in his system was played by techniques of breathing (a point important to remember in examining Swedenborg's visions in the eighteenth century), and by Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission. requirements of body posture, forms of recitation, etc,, which found their uigliGst deveicpments in Yogai Abulafia taught that the supreme stage of vision is the perception of one's spiritual mentor, usually visualized as a young or old man, whom the visionary not only sees but hears: "The body," Abulafia says, "requires the physician of the body, the soul the physician of the soul, to wit the students of the Torah, but the intellect (the highest power of the soul) requires a mover from outside who has received Kabbalah concerning the mysteries of the Torah and a mover from inside • • , who opens the closed doors before him," (Scholem, MT, p, 139) Abulafia differentiated between the human and divine teacher, and pointed out that one could manage, if necessary, without the former, but never without the spiritual teacher who confronts man at the secret gates of his soul.

Wynn Westcott, wrote much upon these Germanic traditions, as in An Introduction to the Kabbalah (London: John M. Watkins, 1910). Of even greater importance to the teachings of the eighteenth- and nineteenth-century Cabalistic societies was the influence of medieval Hasidic "letter-magic" on Abraham Abulafia, whose great thirteenth-century manuals of meditation-techniques have provided a rich reservoir of materials for voyants down to the present day. Though born in Spain, Abulafia travelled widely in the Near East, Greece, and Italy, diligently seeking "secret knowledge," and came into contact with many non-Jewish mystics.

The medieval recipes originally aimed at producing ecstatic states of con­ sciousness, through the old techniques of Merkabah letter-magic and rituals. The Golem came to life only while the ecstasy of his creator lasted. Spanish Cabalists insisted that the Golem was not corporeal but a "creation of thought," and others defined the process as a purely mystical operation, ridiculing the folly "of those who study the Book Yetsirah in order to make a calf, for those who do so are themselves calves" (Scholem, KS, p.

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