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By Louis Tan Tai. Ho

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Extra info for Formulating Detergents and Personal Care Products: A Guide to Product Development

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I) Su$ace tension. Between molecules, there are forces that attract, called Van der Waals forces. In a given liquid, any one molecule will always find itself at the center of a field of attracting forces of spherical symmetry caused by neighboring molecules. The effect of the Van der Waals forces is thus nullified. But at a surface of a liquid, the situation is quite different; molecules are subjected to an asymmetrical force field. In the gaseous phase, the attracting force is almost negligible because of the widely dispersed molecules.

Also, the sebum triglycerides are not saponified, even at a pH of >1 I. The Break-Up of Solid Polycrystalline Aggregates. By what mechanism is nonpolar fatty soil removed at a temperature lower than its melting point? In fact, it is removed by surfactants that penetrate tiny splits or cracks in the solids, breaking them up into fine particles that are subsequently dispersed into the detergent solution. Scott (25) proved this mechanism by showing that there is a high degree of retention of surfactants in solid tripalmitin.

The phenomena of adhesion and removal of particulate soil are based on the theories of electricity and adsorption. The latter has already been dealt with in the context of fatty soil. We will look here at the electrical theory, based essentially on the theory of Dujaguin, Landau, Verwey, and Overbeck (DLVO) (23). Consider a flat surface F and a particle P. At a given distance 6, F and P are subject to attractive forces (Van der Wads) or to repulsive forces (electrostatic). 1 1 show the repulsive and attractive energies of F and P as a function of their distance from each other.

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