By National Research Council, Division on Earth and Life Studies, Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology, Committee on Fluoride in Drinking Water
Most folk affiliate fluoride with the perform of deliberately including fluoride to public ingesting water offers for the prevention of enamel decay. despite the fact that, fluoride may also input public water platforms from average resources, together with runoff from the weathering of fluoride-containing rocks and soils and leaching from soil into groundwater. Fluoride toxins from a variety of business emissions may also contaminate water offers. In a couple of parts of the USA fluoride concentrations in water are a lot better than general, generally from ordinary resources. Fluoride is likely one of the ingesting water contaminants regulated by way of the U.S. Environmental security organization (EPA) since it can take place at those poisonous degrees. In 1986, the EPA confirmed a greatest allowable focus for fluoride in consuming water of four milligrams in step with litre, a suggestion designed to avoid the general public from being uncovered to damaging degrees of fluoride. "Fluoride in consuming Water" reports learn on a variety of future health results from publicity to fluoride, together with stories carried out within the final 10 years.
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Additional resources for Fluoride in Drinking Water: A Scientific Review of EPA's Standards
110). 110). Fluoride concentrations are required on labels in the United States only if fluoride is added. 6 mg/L (Bartels et al. 2000; Johnson and 2 More recently (2000), CDC has estimated that 850,000 people are served by public water supplies containing fluoride in excess of 2 mg/L; of these, 152,000 people receive water containing fluoride in excess of 4 mg/L (unpublished data from CDC as reported in EPA 2003c. 3 million people nationally are served by public water supplies with fluoride concentrations exceeding 2 mg/L; of these 118,000-301,000 people receive water with fluoride concentrations greater than 4 mg/L.
Water fluoridation is supported by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) as one of the 10 great public health achievements in the United States, because of its role in reducing tooth decay in children and tooth loss in adults (CDC 1999). S. Surgeon General has endorsed water fluoridation over the decades it has been practiced, emphasizing that “[a] significant advantage of water fluoridation is that all residents of a community can enjoy its protective benefit . . A person’s income level or ability to receive dental care is not a barrier to receiving fluoridation’s health benefits” (Carmona 2004).
019 mg/L 1 mg/kg 10,000 mg/kg Abbreviations: mg/kg, milligrams per kilogram; mg/L, milligrams per liter; µmol/L, micromoles per liter; ppm, parts per million. Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. html 18 FLUORIDE IN DRINKING WATER: A SCIENTIFIC REVIEW OF EPA’S STANDARDS STRUCTURE OF THE REPORT The remainder of this report is organized into 10 chapters. Chapter 2 characterizes the general public’s exposure to fluoride from drinking water and other sources. Chapter 3 provides a description of the chemistry of fluoride and pharmacokinetic information that was considered in evaluating the toxicity data on fluoride.