By Michael Allaby
July 2002, floods in japanese and valuable Texas have been so serious that many counties have been declared catastrophe components and 8 humans misplaced their lives. In August 2002, in relevant and japanese Europe, dozens of deaths and untold irreplaceable cultural and ancient websites have been destroyed via flooding. In Asia, throughout the summer time of 2002, a minimum of 1,800 humans died. although frequently tragic, there are floods through the international each year, a lot of them devastating and lethal. In Floods, Revised variation, writer Michael Allaby has considerably altered, accelerated, and in a few areas rewritten the unique textual content to mirror contemporary findings and new details in this kind of critical climate. 3 new chapters clarify storms and cloudbursts, thunder and lightning, and the monsoons in better aspect. Many new and revised sidebars exhibit motives or attention-grabbing items of data approximately floods and flooding, with no interrupting the most movement of the textual content. those clarify techniques from atmospheric technological know-how, comparable to partial strain and vapor strain; cost separation in typhoon clouds; and glacioisostasy, in addition to explaining why it rains extra on mountainsides than it does within the valleys. New extra examining lists on the finish of every part and on the end of the publication stimulate extra learn. scholars will locate this ebook finished and necessary because it explains the phenomenon in transparent and available language.
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Extra info for Floods (Facts on File Dangerous Weather Series)
An undisturbed large body of water, such as a puddle or pond, has a flat surface, because gravity is the strongest force acting on it. In a How the land drains 23 small volume, however, such as a single drop, surface tension pulls the water surface into the shape that requires the least energy to maintain it. This is a sphere, the shape that has the smallest surface area in relation to its volume. There is also another attractive force. This acts between the electric charge on water molecules (positive at the hydrogen end of the molecule and negative at the oxygen end) and the opposite charge on molecules at the surface of a solid.
The 1999 summer monsoon, for example, caused severe flooding in both South and North Korea, as well as in Cambodia, Thailand, Vietnam, the Philippines, Nepal, India, Bangladesh, and China. A total of more than 1,500 people are believed to have died in those floods. In August 1998, 25 inches (620 mm) of rain that fell in the course of a single night caused flooding in Seoul in which more than 130 people died. In July 1996, when 21 inches (533 mm) of rain fell in just three days along the border between North and South Korea, two towns, Yonchon and Munsan, were almost completely submerged, sending 50,000 people fleeing onto higher ground; mudslides triggered by the rains killed more than 40 people.
This may be the solid rock lying beneath the soil, or a bed of tightly compacted clay. Water cannot penetrate it, so it accumulates above it. Above the impermeable layer is now a layer of soil that is completely saturated with water. Water fills all the spaces between its particles. Such a layer lies below all soils, even in deserts, although there it may be far below the surface. The water it contains is known as groundwater. Layers of rock or other impermeable material are rarely horizontal, so the groundwater flows downhill.