Download Ethnic Groups of Europe: An Encyclopedia (Ethnic Groups of by Jeffrey E. Cole PDF

By Jeffrey E. Cole

A part of a five-volume sequence on ethnic teams world wide, Ethnic teams of Europe: An Encyclopedia offers particular descriptions of greater than a hundred ecu ethnic and nationwide teams. each one access presents an outline of the crowd in addition to in-depth info at the group's origins and early background, cultural existence, and up to date advancements. one of the details provided for every team are worldwide and nationwide inhabitants figures and debts of geographical distribution, diaspora populations, the group's historical place of birth, major religions and languages, and similar teams. The entries additionally spotlight areas, humans, and occasions of specific value to every crew, and sidebars introduce similar issues of interest.Throughout the textual content, exact realization is concentrated at the dating among ethnicity and nationalism. an evidence of the technique used for choosing the ethnic teams within the encyclopedia can also be supplied, as is an introductory essay regarding ethnicity in Europe.

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B. ) In 819, sovereignty was granted to the Count of Urgell in Catalonia, from whom it passed to the Bishop of Seu d’Urgell. Since the 13th century, this cleric has been titular coprince of Andorra with the Count of Foix, whose rights eventually accrued to the president of the French state. A new constitution establishing clear local control was promulgated in 1993. Andorra’s traditional economy depended for centuries on agriculture, herding, mining and ironwork, and textiles, supplemented by smuggling of goods and peoples across borders; by 1950, its population only numbered 10,000, with the power of patriarchal stem families remaining strong.

In 1991 the socialist chancellor, Franz Vranitzky, was the first Austrian leader to acknowledge publicly Austria’s responsibility for Nazi crimes in World War II. However, right-wing politicians and activists continue to deny that Austrians perpetrated the genocide against Jews, while simultaneously campaigning against ethnic minorities and immigrant groups who currently represent around 10 percent of Austria’s population. With the waves of refugees and migrants from former Yugoslavia in the 1990s, and right-wing attempts to abolish minority rights for Slovenian-speakers in Austria’s southern provinces, Austrians have had to confront another aspect of their past—their relations with neighboring states that once belonged to the Habsburg domains.

From the 6th century CE on, written references to the Vlachs can be deduced from Latin place names. Bulgarian scriptures from the 10th century make reference to Vlachs and to areas designated as Great and Little Wallachia, which roughly | correspond to the location of present Vlach populations. About that time close connection among numerous Aromanian groups was probably broken, and they were exposed to various outside influences. By the mid-14th century Serbs occupied most of the Aromanian parishes.

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