Download Encyclopedia of Weather and Climate by Michael Allaby PDF

By Michael Allaby

The most physique of the encyclopedia involves authoritative entries describing techniques comparable to cloud formation, atmospheric phenomena resembling rainbows, and a few of the thoughts and tools used to review the ambience, in addition to the devices of size that scientists use. The wide insurance additionally comprises the class structures which are used for weather kinds, winds, and clouds. Ten appendixes comprise precious supplementary fabric corresponding to biographical notes on scientists and lists of the main critical tropical cyclones and tropical storms, climate failures, and milestones in atmospheric learn. those obtainable appendixes additionally contain chronologies, the geologic time scale, SI devices and conversions, and extra.

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When they plotted the distribution of temperature and humidity on maps, the pattern that emerged showed that these atmospheric characteristics remained constant over large areas. They coined the terms air mass to describe such homogenous bodies of air and front to describe the boundary between one air mass and another. Types of air masses are classified according to the source regions in which they originate. The first divi- surface 50 –150 miles 300 – 600 miles © Infobase Publishing Two air masses, one warm and the other cold, are separated by a frontal zone.

Cfcs are also considered primary pollutants, because of their role in depleting the ozone layer and their global warming potential (see greenhouse effect), as are halons (see ozone layer) and the other greenhouse gases. A secondary pollutant is a polluting substance that is produced in the atmosphere by chemical reactions between primary pollutants. A mixture of fog and smoke constitutes smog. Smoke is a primary pollutant, and the resulting smog is the secondary pollutant. Unburned hydrocarbons, which are primary pollutants air pollution released mainly in vehicle exhausts, can be oxidized in a series of steps to form peroxyacetyl nitrates.

Katabaric, alternatively known as katallobaric, is an adjective that is applied to any phenomenon associated with a fall in atmospheric pressure. In a mixture of gases, the share of the total pressure that can be attributed to any one of the constituent gases is known as the partial pressure of that gas. For example, if the atmospheric pressure is 1000 mb and oxygen accounts for 21 percent of the mass of the air, then the partial pressure for oxygen is 210 mb. The height above sea level at which the air pressure in a standard atmosphere (see units of measurement) would be the same as the pressure measured at the surface in a particular place is called the pressure altitude (compare density: density altitude).

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