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By M. el-Hawary

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20. On the same graph, the B-H characteristic for nonmagnetic material is shown to show the relative magnitudes involved. 21. The dashed curve connecting the tips of the loops in the figure is the dc magnetization curve for the material. 1 lists some typical values for Hc, Br, and Bs for common magnetic materials. 22(A) is negative since H is positive but B is decreasing. If we continue on from b to d through c, the energy is positive as H is negative but B is decreasing. 22(B) and is selfexplanatory.

19. We will discuss the evolution of the B-H hysteresis loop in the following intervals. Interval I: Between t = 0 and T/4, the magnetic field intensity H is positive and increasing. The flux density increases along the initial curve (oa) up to the saturation value Bs. Increasing H beyond saturation level does not result in an increase in B. Interval II: Between t = T/4 and T/2, the magnetic field intensity is positive but decreasing. The flux density B is observed to decrease along the segment ab.

These are the current I, the voltage V, the complex power S, the impedance Z, and the phase angles. The angles are dimensionless; the other four quantities are completely described by knowledge of only two of them. An arbitrary choice of two base quantities will fix the other base quantities. Let I b and Vb represent the base current and base voltage expressed in kiloamperes and kilovolts, respectively. 27) The base admittance will naturally be the inverse of the base impedance. 28) Sb = Vb 2 siemens The nominal voltage of lines and equipment is almost always known as well as the apparent (complex) power in megavoltamperes, so these two quantities are usually chosen for base value calculation.

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