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By Luis Chicharo, Felix Müller, Nicola Fohrer

This booklet offers an built-in research of the methodologies and major methods happening on the whole river basin, from upstream until eventually the coast, through merging the organic and hydrological approaches with the social and financial elements, therefore supplying an built-in framework for river basin administration, integrating the ecohydrology process with the environment companies concept.

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Other market goods have to be negotiated as option values, referring to potential future uses of the ecosystem services. g. flood damages). Hypothetical indirect monetary values are calculated taking into consideration the costs of a repair, avoidance costs or replacement costs. Non-market goods are much harder to quantify, because the respective public goods are often enjoyed for free by the beneficiaries, while their access can hardly be regulated or controlled. To determine a “shadow price” for these services, two attempts are chosen in ecological economics: The revealed preference method is based on the The Basic Ideas of the Ecosystem Service Concept 25 Market goods Non-market goods Revealed preferences Direct Real Market price Hypothetical Option value Stated preferences Hedonic pricing Contingent behaviour Travel costs Choice modelling Indirect Conjoint choice Real Damage costs Hypothetical Repair costs Avoidance costs Contingent valuation Willingness to accept Willingness to pay Replacement costs Fig.

2010). As water flows from rivers and streams to estuaries and coasts, the upstream use of water impacts on the downstream uses and on ecological functioning. River damming is reducing more than 30 % of world river discharge to estuaries and coastal areas. Such trapping of water upstream supports water uses for agriculture or hydroelectric production, but reduces estuarine and coastal productivity, changes biodiversity and causes shifts in coastal fisheries (Chícharo et al 2006; Morais et al 2009, 2010, 2012; Wolanski et al 2006).

G. storms, fires, floods, droughts) and endangering human activities Social well-being Nutrition Availability and quality of food to optimize people’s nutritional state Demography Dynamic changes of population numbers and composition Health Access to health infrastructure to optimize people’s overall health status Education Availability, quantity and quality of all forms of education and training Leisure Quantity and quality of individual leisure and cultural activities (in- and outdoor) and provision of a respective infrastructure Social relations Personal stability resulting from social networking and interchange Personal well-being Personal Subjective determinants of quality of life; an integration of all other well-being issues rized as intermediate services – can be illuminated by consequent interrelations between Tables 2 and 5: For example global climate regulation by forestry can provide employment and income for foresters, the products may be used for the construction of houses or infrastructural facilities, and a reduction of the atmospheric CO2 concentrations will enhance people’s security from extreme events.

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