By Stefan Shanov, Konstantin Kostov
The karstic caves are favorable websites for tectonic occasions detecting, representing a conservative medium of three-d framework the place the tectonic deformations are good preserved. additionally they supply an atmosphere conducive to courting and making a choice on the geometrical parameters of prior seismotectonic occasions. over the past 3 a long time the learn of dynamic tectonics and up to date geodynamics in karst terrains has been topic of diverse courses, however it has no longer been systematically approached in a finished monograph.
This ebook collects the present kingdom of data at the dating among karst and dynamic tectonics and provides a brand new method to its learn. It places ahead numerous ways for learning of modern geodynamics in karst terrains, similar to tectonic rigidity fields reconstructions utilizing structural research of the fracturing, geophysical experiences of the rock anisotropy and fault-plane strategies from earthquakes, research of the spatial orientation and absolute relationship of deformed speleothems, instrumental and mechanical measurements, tracking and modeling – all supported with case experiences from a number of karst components all over the world, e.g. in Albania, Bulgaria, Cuba and France.
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Additional info for Dynamic Tectonics and Karst
The second impact B was due to the more recent deformations, probably related to the Post-Sarmatian processes. ) deformations marked a total change of the preferential direction of cave formation due to the interchange of the orientations of r1 and r3 tectonic stress axes. 2 Methods of Reconstruction and Analyses of the Tectonic Stress Fields tectonic stress field axes keep their general orientation and the consecutive dominant NW-SE direction of the largest galleries in the cave. The main phreatic stage of cave formation and especially the formation of the large halls can be assigned to this period.
The principal aquifer (Upper Jurassic—Lower Cretaceous) is totally exposed on the surface. This fact predestines the high level of karstification related to the possibility of intensive feeding from the atmospheric precipitation. According to Spasov et al. (1998), more than 54 % of the atmospheric precipitation (in average 1,000 mm/m2 per year) is feeding the underground waters. Part of the water forms temporal streams on the surface, but the water is quickly drained in the dolines. 3 Tectonic Stress Control on Karst Systems: Case Studies 39 situated in the northern part of Vratsa Mountain are draining the aquifer.
Looking at the performed reconstructions of the tectonic stress fields, the most coinciding with the described above tectonic deformations in macro scale are these from the method using the shear joints. The oldest deformations are detected on site No 5 where the Triassic limestones retain the ‘‘memory’’ for two impacts. The first one is related to the Early Cimmerian Tectonic Phase (at the end of Upper Triassic time), and the second—to the Late Cimmerian Tectonic Phase (the second half of Upper Jurassic time).