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Variations, however, do exist between countries. In Poland, disparities in opiate use have been recorded between major cities. For example, 70 % of all treatment clients in Warsaw and Krakow are primary opiate users. However, in Krakow the majority use home-made opiates while in Warsaw heroin is the primary drug consumed. Variations in use between ethnic groups have also been reported within CEECs. In the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, for example, 1998 data show that young Macedonians tend to inject heroin whereas ethnic Albanians are more likely to smoke it.

In the Netherlands, possession of small amounts of ‘hard’ drugs for personal use is not normally prosecuted, while in Finland those using ‘hard’ drugs will be more often prosecuted than those using ‘soft’ drugs, but the legal practice varies among individual courts. Property offences Selling drugs Selling drugs to acquire money to finance a drug habit is a common behaviour among users throughout Europe and is considered a serious offence in all countries, whatever the circumstances. However, the extent of the crime is taken into account when imposing penalties which vary among countries and range from fines to a limited period in custody to life imprisonment in the UK.

7 % in 1998. 4 %. In Poland, the proportion of users of home-made opiates (so-called ‘Polish’ heroin) has been decreasing markedly, while the percentage of heroin users is increasing. Slovakia reported an increase in heroin use among treatment clients from 37 % in 1993 to 86 % in 1994. Geographic and social influences Since 1996, opiate use in the CEECs has been spreading from predominately major urban areas to most regions. In Slovakia, while only 35 % of heroin-dependent clients were treated outside Bratislava in 1994, this figure rose to 47 and 60 % in 1995 and 1996 respectively.

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