By Keith Taylor
Diabetes, in all of its types, now constitutes a starting to be overall healthiness drawback, affecting all segments of the world’s inhabitants. there's nice curiosity within the components which impact its etiology and development. between those, a few viruses characteristic prominently. Hindered by means of technological boundaries, examine into this courting has hitherto been scarce. fresh advances, although, have spread out the sector and there's a burgeoning physique of literature at the topic. regrettably, this literature has been diffuse and infrequently tough to access.
For the 1st time, this ebook compiles the perspectives of some of the world’s specialists within the box. It addresses questions, starting from how viruses may possibly break or alter the functionality of pancreatic islets; to which viruses are the main most probably culprits; as to if vaccines or etiologic treatments should be used to avoid virus-induced diabetes. Diabetes and Viruses is the 1st entire quantity on a big and increasing box of study that's of curiosity to clinicians, healthcare managers, epidemiologists, veterinarians, and simple scientists.
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Additional resources for Diabetes and Viruses
Speciﬁcally, evidence for a genetic association with an antiviral innate immune response network within macrophages provides persuasive evidence for a viral effect (Heinig et al. 2010). There is evidence that two viral factors operate to inﬂuence the rate of disease progression subjects with autoantibodies: ﬁrstly, a critical gene in this anti-viral network, the interferon helicase IFIH1, has such an effect, and secondly, enterovirus infections also appear to inﬂuence the rate of progression to type 1 diabetes (Winkler et al.
However, the severity of metabolic features, both before and at the time of diagnosis of type 1 diabetes, is wide-ranging. The diabetes disease process is increasingly seen as a spectrum, with childhood-onset insulin-dependent diabetes at one end, and adult-onset non-insulin requiring diabetes at the other. Although it has proven difﬁcult to deﬁne forms of the disease, the presence of diabetes-associated autoantibodies does serve to exclude autoimmune diabetes patients from being designated under “type 2 diabetes”.
1007/978-1-4614-4051-2_4, © Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013 25 26 S. Wai-Yan Chiu et al. like other autoimmune diseases, can be thought of as a complex interaction between genes and the environment, although many contributing factors are yet to be elucidated. It is apparent that genes cannot be acting alone; however, it is still unclear how non-genetic events may lead to disease. Evidence for Non-Genetic Effects Many genetic variants have been identiﬁed through genome-wide association studies (GWAS) to detect common variants in alleles that are disease-associated.