Download Computer Aids for VLSI Design (The VLSI Systems Series) by Steven M. Rubin PDF

By Steven M. Rubin

This textbook, initially released in 1987, widely examines the software program required to layout digital circuitry, together with built-in circuits. subject matters comprise synthesis and research instruments, pix and person interface, reminiscence illustration, and extra. The publication additionally describes a true approach known as "Electric."

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For example. if 50 were in fact the correct number in the 1 to 100 range. binary search would find it on the very first guess. To determine the average-case behavior of binary search. we need to determine the expected value of the number of guesses over the entire possible range. Assuming that there are N numbers in the complete range. we know that only one of them (specifically. the number at the center of the range) will be guessed on the very first try. Two numbers will be guessed in two tries.

It can be used only as a rough approximation to the total execution time since it ignores the other operations that are necessary, for example, to control the loop processes. Nonetheless. it can be quite useful as a tool for predicting the efficiency of the loop operation as N grows large. Once again. it helps to make a table showing the number of assignments performed for various values of N. N Assignments to A[I,J] 10 100 1,000 10,000 55 5,050 500,500 50,005,000 From this table. we recognize that the number of assignments grows much more quickly than N.

This number is equivalent to the number of pairs that were alive two months ago, since all of these must, by this time, be capable of reproduction. This observation gives rise to the following computational rule: The number of rabbit pairs at the end of month N is equal to the sum of 1. The number of pairs at the end of month N-I 2. The number of pairs at the end of month N-2 If we use the notation FIB(N) to denote the number of rabbit pairs at the end of month N (where FIB is chosen in honor of Fibonacci), we can rephrase this discovery in a more compact form: FIB(N) = FIB(N-l) + FIB(N-2) An expression of this type, which defines a particular element of a sequence in terms of earlier elements, is called a recurrence relation and is part of a recursive definition.

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