By Frank P. Incropera
Lower than one disguise, Frank Incropera presents a accomplished, aim and significant review of all matters germane to the weather swap debate: technological know-how, know-how techniques, monetary ramifications, cultural and behavioural matters, the impact of distinctive pursuits and public coverage, geopolitics, and moral dimensions. The underlying technology is handled extensive, yet in an approachable and available demeanour. a robust case is made for the truth of anthropogenic weather switch, whereas confronting the variety of matters that stay doubtful and deconstructing opposing perspectives. Incropera assesses the strengths and weaknesses of expertise ideas for mitigating the consequences of weather switch, analyzes nontechnical elements - monetary, cultural and political − and offers an in-depth therapy of moral implications. This booklet is meant for these wishing to turn into totally proficient approximately weather switch and is designed to supply the reader with a company beginning for drawing his or her personal conclusions.
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Extra info for Climate Change: A Wicked Problem: Complexity and Uncertainty at the Intersection of Science, Economics, Politics, and Human Behavior
S. S. S. National Science Foundation NSPS New source performance standards of the EPA NYT New York Times OECD Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (thirty-four developed nations, largely from the EU and North America, as well as Australia, Chile, Iceland, Israel, Japan, Korea, New Zealand, Switzerland, and Turkey) OFC Oxy-fuel combustion OPEC Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries PC Pulverized coal PFC Perfluorinated chemical PHEV Plug-in hybrid electric vehicle POC Products of combustion ppb Concentration of a species in a mixture expressed in parts per billion by volume (ratio of number of molecules to molecules of dry air) ppm Concentration of a species in a mixture expressed in parts per million by volume (ratio of number of molecules to molecules of dry air) PPP Purchasing power parity xxxi newgenprepdf xxxii Abbreviations ppt PTC PV RCP REC REDD RF RGGI RPS SCPC SRES SRM SST SUV TCEP Tcm THC TOA TPES TSI TVA UN UNEP USCCB USCPC WAIS WDPM WMO WSJ Concentration of a species in a mixture expressed in parts per trillion by volume (ratio of number of molecules to molecules of dry air) Production tax credit Solar photovoltaic power Representative Concentration Pathway Renewable energy credit Reducing emissions from deforestation and degradation in developing nations Radiative forcing (change in the net downward radiative flux at the tropopause due to changes in a parameter that affects the transfer of short-wave solar or long-wave terrestrial radiation to or from the Earth) Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative Renewable portfolio standard Supercritical pulverized coal (power plant) UN Special Report on Emission Scenarios A form of geoengineering involving solar radiation management by increasing reflection to counter the warming effect of GHG emissions Sea surface temperature Sport utility vehicle Texas Clean Energy Project Trillion cubic meters (at standard temperature and pressure) Thermohaline circulation Top (outer edge) of the Earth’s atmosphere Total primary energy supply Total solar irradiance (measured in W/m2) Tennessee Valley Authority United Nations United Nations Environmental Programme United States Conference of Catholic Bishops Ultra-supercritical pulverized coal (power plant) West Antarctic ice sheet Papal World Day of Peace Message World Meteorological Organization Wall Street Journal chapter 1 Energy, economics, and climate change We can’t engage in a serious examination of climate change without considering its strong ties to energy.
Since the Industrial Revolution, fossil fuels have provided the lion’s share of the world’s primary energy supply, and for good reason. They are abundant, have large energy densities and can be supplied at comparatively low costs. Today fossil fuels supply about 80% of the world’s primary energy consumption, and although they are nonrenewable, resources are more than sufficient to maintain this share well into, if not beyond, this century. But there is a downside. Emissions of pollutants such as oxides of sulfur and nitrogen, particulates and mercury are harmful to human health and the environment, and related costs are not borne by those who produce, market or consume the fuels, but by the larger society.
Costs associated with addressing the problem at appropriate scales are large, challenging the ability of governments and capital markets to make appropriate investments. Human behavior and ideologies are also influential, as are ethical dimensions – philosophical and religious. With such an array of contributing factors, it’s not surprising that divergent views have emerged, impeding efforts to deal with the problem. For wicked problems one solution does not fit all. When my colleague asked his students to provide an example of a contemporary problem that could be classified as wicked, the responses overwhelmingly pointed to issues of sustainability and climate change.