By Clarence B. Ammerman, David P. Baker, Austin J. Lewis
This sensible e-book offers an important details essential to formulate diets with applicable quantities of amino acids, minerals, and supplements. the criteria that impact how good animals receive those severe nutrition and strategies for identifying bioavailability are reviewed during this accomplished textual content. furthermore, facts from either ruminants and nonruminants are incorporated in addition to proven estimates of bioavailability for specific feed stuffs and feed vitamins.
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Extra info for Bioavailability of nutrients for animals: amino acids, minerals, and vitamins
Digestibilities based on direct comparisons of feed intake and ileal or fecal output are affected by the contributions of endogenously derived material to the ileal or fecal output. For nitrogen compounds, including the amino acids, these contributions can be substantial because of the proteinaceous nature of the digestive enzymes and the mucosal cells added to the digesta. , 1981). One method of estimating the contribution of endogenous amino acids is to measure the fecal amino acid loss when a protein-free diet is consumed.
Comparison of the ileal amino acid flux with the dietary intake allows calculation of apparent ileal digestibility. Low (1982) concluded that this measure is useful because it indicates the minimal net amount of amino acids, irrespective of origin, that is lost to the animal. Apparent digestibilities are increased by correction for endogenous losses and depend on the dietary intake of the amino acids. But Buraczewski and Horaczynski (1983) found that increasing the protein level from 10 to 20% had no effect on apparent ileal digestibilities.
Early research (Cannon et ai, 1947; Geiger, 1947) indicated that the timing of an amino acid supplement may affect its efficiency of utilization. Subsequent studies (Yang et al, 1963, 1968; Baker and Izquierdo, 1985) have revealed that this may vary among amino acids and may depend on the level of amino acid supplementation. , 1985), however, have shown clearly that the efficiency of crystalline lysine utilization is lower when pigs are fed once daily than when they are fed more frequently. The overall question regarding the utilization of crystalline amino acids remains unanswered, but it is evident that there are situations when crystalline amino acids may be completely absorbed but not completely bioavailable.