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Wild fruit flies mate more frequently under low light conditions, which may correspond with the cooler and more humid times of the day. Selection for sensitivity to light intensity may have been relaxed in long-standing laboratory populations of fruit flies because of the constant temperature and humidity of the laboratory environment. Hence, domestic stocks may be more active in the middle of the day. Koyama et al. e. at higher light intensity) than in a comparable wild population. Conscious Artificial Selection Artificial selection has been demonstrated for a plethora of phenotypic traits.

1. Behavioral characteristics considered favorable and unfavorable for the domestication of vertebrate animals. ) Favorable characteristics Social structure of populations Social organization – dominance hierarchy Large gregarious social groups Males affiliated with social group Intra- and interspecies aggressive behavior Nonaggressive Sexual behavior Promiscuous matings Males dominate females Male initiated Sexual signals provided by movements or posture Parental behavior Precocial young Young easily separated from parents Response to humans Tameable/readily habituated Short flight distance from man Nonaggressive toward humans Readily controlled May solicit attention Temperament Limited sensitivity to changes in environment Locomotor activity and habitat choice Limited agility Small home range Wide environmental tolerance Nonshelter seeking Feeding behavior Generalist feeder or omnivorous Unfavorable characteristics Social organization – territoriality Family groups important Males typically live in separate groups Naturally aggressive Form pair bonds prior to mating Females dominate males/males appease females Female initiated Sexual signals provided by color markings or morphology Altricial young Prolonged period of parental care Difficult to tame Long flight distance from man Aggressive toward humans Difficult to control Independent/avoids attention Highly sensitive to changes in environment Highly agile/difficult to contain or restrain Requires large home range Narrow environmental tolerance Shelter seeking Specialized dietary preferences/ requirements 24 Chapter 4 tamed, ease in handling, limited sensitivity to environmental change, limited agility, wide environmental tolerance and generalized feeding behaviors.

The present chapter examines the incidence and consequences of inbreeding within populations of captive animals. Small population sizes with limited numbers of breeding animals increase the chance breeding of related individuals. In addition, man’s desire to preserve favored traits has often resulted in the conscious interbreeding of genetically similar animals. Inbreeding depression (loss of vigor or fitness) is a likely consequence of close inbreeding. It is noted that crossbreeding animals from different populations may serve to restore vigor and fitness, but outbreeding may have detrimental consequences when co-adapted gene complexes are disturbed.

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