By Peter G. Zarrow
Naphtali Lewis and Meyer Reinhold's Roman Civilization is a vintage. initially released by way of Columbia collage Press in 1955, the authors have undertaken one other revision which takes under consideration fresh paintings within the box. those volumes encompass chosen basic records from historic Rome, protecting a number of over 1,000 years of Roman tradition, from the root of the town to its sacking via the Goths.The choices hide a vast spectrum of Roman civilization, together with literature, philosophy, faith, schooling, politics, army affairs, and economics. those English translations of literary, inscriptional, and papyrological resources, a lot of that are on hand nowhere else, create a mosaic of the brilliance, the sweetness, and the facility of Rome.
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Additional info for Anarchism in Chinese Political Culture: Anarchism and Chinese Political Culture
Modern-day workers may be Christians or Muslims, men or women, white or black; they may work with a computer or with a spade. Modern trade unions have Does Trade Unionism Have a Future? 37 to find what unites these people, have to become organs reconciling their interests. In the conditions of the late twentieth century the democratization of the trade unions has become impossible without their feminization, without changes to their culture, traditions and membership base. The American Marxist scholar, Peter Meiksins, writes: Overcoming these kinds of divisions, forging harmonious relations among workers from different racial and ethnic backgrounds, overcoming differences of status within the waged labor force, and unifying workers with different occupational experiences requires a real ‘class’ project.
The positions of the British trade unions were undermined by the policies of the Thatcher government, policies which were openly directed against the labour movement. Not only ‘objective processes’, but also pressures from the ruling class were behind the crisis. 38 In the course of the 1990s employers and the authorities have unleashed offensives against the trade unions in practically all European countries. But their successes have by no means been universal. The decline of the French trade unions did not prevent them from scoring a decisive victory over the government in December 1995.
In both cases demands that originally were perceived as ‘corporate’ were later recognized by the bulk of the population as having a general democratic character. In this way, a new basis for solidarity arose. Unity was achieved not through moderation and compromise but, on the contrary, thanks to the fact that a tough position on the part of the strikers had won support in society. Despite the initially tough position of the authorities, the workers’ determination to achieve their goals whatever the cost changed the situation.