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By Richard Stoneman, Kyle Erickson, Ian Richard Netton

Alexander the good of Macedon used to be no stranger to controversy in his personal time. Conqueror of the Greek states, of Egypt and of the Persian Empire in addition to a number of the principalities of the Indus Valley, he however turned respected in addition to vilified. was once he easily a destroyer of the traditional civilizations and religions of those areas, or was once he a hero of the Persian dynasties and of Islam? The conflicting perspectives that have been taken of him within the center East in his personal time and the centuries that are nonetheless mirrored within the tensions that exist among east and west this day. the tale of Alexander turned the topic of legend within the medieval west, yet was once even perhaps extra pervasive within the east. The Alexander Romance used to be translated into Syriac within the 6th century and will became present in Persia as early because the 3rd century advert. From those beginnings it reached into the Persian nationwide epic, the Shahnameh, into Jewish traditions, and into the Quran and next Arab romance. The papers during this quantity all have the purpose of deepening our figuring out of this complicated improvement. If we will be able to comprehend higher why Alexander is such a massive determine in either east and west, we will be a bit toward knowing what unites usually antipathetic worlds. This quantity collects the papers introduced on the convention of an identical name held on the college of Exeter from July 26-29 2010. greater than part the papers have been through invited audio system and have been designed to supply a scientific view of the topic; the remaining have been chosen for his or her skill to hold study ahead in an built-in method.

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72 ————— 68 69 70 71 72 Cf. Hegel 1971, 1:115-209. For the transition from the tripartite Indo-European organization of the Pārsā, see Benveniste 1969, 279-373; Dumézil 1945. 90. Cf. Petit 1990. For a relevant case study, see Fried 2004; Cataldo 2009. For documentation, see Cook 1985. 73 Dārayavauš represents this dialectic concretely in the inscriptions erected at Pārsa (Persepolis < Greek: Persēs polis) which memorialize his reign. 74 At the same time, however, stone blocks set into the terrace’s enclosure wall describe this geographic space as filled by an open-ended series of discrete peoples without integral connection or territorial hierarchization: King Dārayavauš declares: This is the realm (xšaçam) that I possess (dārayāmiy), from the Skythians who are beyond Sogdiana to Kush, from Sind to Sardis—which Ahura Mazdā has bestowed upon me.

47 Above all, however, what the Romance of Aḥīqar idealizes is the potential for mobility—geographic, social, and economic— within the Assyro-Achaemenid tributary state. Under ʾĒsareaddōn, therefore, the scribal calling not only appears as a carrière ouverte à tout talent; unlike Mārĕdāeai in the closely related Hebrew ʾEstēr, ʾAeīqar’s enemies are not “ʿĂmālēqites”—the archetypal assailants who attempt to obstruct the Hebrew people in their pilgrimage from Egypt to Sīnai48—but his own Aramaic kin: Assyrians of all classes, from executioner to king, prove ʾAeīqar’s greatest champions at court, in effect to emphasize that within the multiethnic arena of the empire—be it in Egypt, Aššūr, or Elam—foreigners were as often as not allies, well-wishers, and friends.

Tribute, in kind, coin, or manpower, comprised both a complex set of levies—fixed by the central government ad hoc—as well as gifts determined by the communities themselves. These the local populations collected according to their own traditions, to bestow upon the satrap who, in turn, passed on the revenues expected by the king. 71 None of the surviving evidence suggests that the central Īrānian administration returned anything directly to the subject territories as investment for future economic growth.

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