Download AIDS in South Asia: Understanding And Responding to a by James F. Blanchard, Han Kang, Faran Emmanuel, Sushena Reza PDF

By James F. Blanchard, Han Kang, Faran Emmanuel, Sushena Reza Paul,

South Asia's HIV epidemic is extremely heterogeneous. therefore, expert, prioritized, and potent responses necessitate an figuring out of the epidemic variety among and inside nations. additional unfold of HIV in South Asia is preventable. the long run dimension of South Asia's epidemic depends on a good two-pronged method: to begin with, at the scope and effectiveness of HIV prevention courses for intercourse employees and their consumers, injecting drug clients and their sexual companions, and males having intercourse with males and their different sexual companions; and secondly, at the effectiveness of efforts to handle the underlying socio-economic determinants of the epidemic, and to minimize stigma and discrimination in the direction of humans conducting excessive possibility behaviors, frequently marginalized in society, in addition to humans residing with HIV and AIDS. This assessment used to be undertaken to supply a foundation for rigorous, evidence-informed HIV coverage and programming in South Asia.

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The scale and heterogeneity of the country’s HIV epidemic can be appreciated by considering how India’s size and complexity resemble those of a continent in which some states and even districts are larger than many African countries. India’s epidemic is concentrated in eight states with over 1 percent HIV prevalence in prenatal clinics (NACO 2005): • Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, and Andhra Pradesh in the south • Maharashtra and Goa in the west • Manipur, Nagaland, and Mizoram in the northeast.

Every year, between 5,000 and 7,000 Nepali girls are trafficked to India, where at least 20,000 female SWs come from Nepal (Furber, Newell, and Lubben 2002). Given the high HIV prevalence among female SWs in India, especially Mumbai, plus the additional marginalization that Nepali 31 32 • AIDS in South Asia girls and women face, these data suggest that sex work in India greatly increases their risk for HIV infection. Recent HIV prevalence figures among segments of female SW subpopulations in Pakistan and Bangladesh are lower than among comparable groups in India.

4 percent). 2 percent in the 10 sampled villages. No data regarding HIV prevalence in the general population are available from Nepal, which vitiates a confident interpretation of the country’s HIV epidemic. In Pakistan, HIV prevalence in the general population remains close to zero (as approximated using professional blood donors, though notwithstanding the potential upward bias of estimates based on this group). In Bangladesh, recent studies among samples of rural men and women living in the Matlab region and among a “general” population of women attending a health care clinic in Dhaka have not found any HIV cases (NASP 2005).

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