By Ellen Frankel Paul, Fred D. Miller, Jeffrey Paul
Twelve philosophers, historians, and political philosophers check points of socialism within the context of its contemporary reversals. a few essays research the ethical and political values that made socialism beautiful to intellectuals, or assessment no matter if facets of socialism could be preserved, resembling its quest for equality and neighborhood. Others study no matter if free-market platforms have to be extra converted according to ongoing socialist evaluations or attest to the ongoing validity of socialism by means of suggesting ways that it could actually nonetheless have a efficient destiny.
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Extra info for After Socialism: Volume 20, Part 1 (Social Philosophy and Policy) (v. 20)
Modern-day workers may be Christians or Muslims, men or women, white or black; they may work with a computer or with a spade. Modern trade unions have Does Trade Unionism Have a Future? 37 to find what unites these people, have to become organs reconciling their interests. In the conditions of the late twentieth century the democratization of the trade unions has become impossible without their feminization, without changes to their culture, traditions and membership base. The American Marxist scholar, Peter Meiksins, writes: Overcoming these kinds of divisions, forging harmonious relations among workers from different racial and ethnic backgrounds, overcoming differences of status within the waged labor force, and unifying workers with different occupational experiences requires a real ‘class’ project.
The positions of the British trade unions were undermined by the policies of the Thatcher government, policies which were openly directed against the labour movement. Not only ‘objective processes’, but also pressures from the ruling class were behind the crisis. 38 In the course of the 1990s employers and the authorities have unleashed offensives against the trade unions in practically all European countries. But their successes have by no means been universal. The decline of the French trade unions did not prevent them from scoring a decisive victory over the government in December 1995.
In both cases demands that originally were perceived as ‘corporate’ were later recognized by the bulk of the population as having a general democratic character. In this way, a new basis for solidarity arose. Unity was achieved not through moderation and compromise but, on the contrary, thanks to the fact that a tough position on the part of the strikers had won support in society. Despite the initially tough position of the authorities, the workers’ determination to achieve their goals whatever the cost changed the situation.