By H Rodolfo Juliani; James E Simon; Chi-Tang Ho
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Brown, J. H. Comparison of two seed oils sued in cosmetics, moringa and marula. Ind. Crops Prod. 2008, 28, 361–364. 38. ; et al. Use of marula products for domestic and commercial purposes: Synthesis of key findings from three sites in southern Africa; Grahamstown Department for International Development: Rhodes University, Grahamstown, 2002. ; ACS Symposium Series; American Chemical Society: Washington, DC, 2013. ch003 Piper guineense (Piperaceae): Chemistry, Traditional Uses, and Functional Properties of West African Black Pepper H.
Guineense showed that this spice did not cause any adverse effect in color, taste, texture or nutritional composition (55). Another important constrains in the production of vegetables and fruits are insect pest infestation that causes drops in yield and reduced quality. Aqueous extracts of P. guineense has been reported to protect several vegetable crops with high repellency rate or antifeedant properties (59–61). For instance, in brassica crops, aqueous extracts caused 100% of mortality of the larvae of Plutella xylostella (62), in legume crops (Vigna unguculata) reduced the egg viability against of the important pests such as Maruca vitrata and Clavigralla tomentosicollis (63, 64) and in banana and plantain crop exhibited repellent and antifeedant properties against the banana weevil (Cosmopolites sordidus) the major constraint in the crop production causing losses between 40 to 50 percent of the plant crop (65).
These studies have, however, revealed contrasting results which might be linked to the solvents used and the compounds extracted by each. Sclerocarya birrea was tested for its effect in the bacterial AMES test on two cell lines. The leaf, root and bark extracts were all tested for genotoxic effects. The DCM and 90% methanol extracts of S. birrea showed no activity on the TA98, and TA 100 cell lines (26) . In contrast, S. birrea was one of a number of South African medicinal plants that showed genotoxicity in the micronucleus test, in the form of structural and numerical and chromosome aberrations (12, 20, 26).