By Samuel Elmo Martin
Have you puzzled a couple of jap sentence your textbook fails to give an explanation for? Do you are feeling uncertain concerning the use of «wa,» «ga,» and «mo?» Or what the principles and meanings of phrases of their literary types are? if that is so, you'll find your solutions in A Reference Grammar of eastern, the main accomplished and trustworthy reference resource on hand. With an in depth 105-page index, the reader will quick locate motives for debris comparable to wa, ga, mo, ni, and de tricky nouns comparable to mono, koto, tokoro, wake, hazu, and tame sentence extensions reminiscent of ne, yo, sa, yara, and nari verb tenses, literary varieties, destructive types - briefly, every thing excited by the japanese language. For the intense scholar, this ebook is vital for clearing up the ambiguities of confusing eastern sentences.
«A actually huge paintings. the most effective reference grammars ever written approximately any language.» - magazine of Asian Studies
«A wealth of knowledge has been packed among the covers.» - Monumenta Nipponica
«By a ways the main accomplished reference grammar of jap within the English language (and possibly in any language).» - magazine of Linguistics
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Additional resources for A Reference Grammar of Japanese
1 18d) . The source of some of these morphemes is u nclear, though I have elsewhere ( Martin 1 968) suggested Korean cognates for the essive n i and the subject marker ga, relating the latter to the morpheme ka which serves both languages as a postadnom inal noun meaning 'the question of ... ', an i ntermed iate stage perhaps bei ng -n-ka with the adnom i nal marker -n- that is found in a number of the languages of northern Asia . Each of the particles to and no is probably a convergence of several d ifferent etyma.
Despite that .. ' (= Sore na no ni) . 0. 1 . 1 1 , a pred icator of nou ns; those uses marked E below can be treated as th is, as probably a lso can those marked ( E ) . 1 . ) ; DAT I V E O F BEN E F IT 'for' = [ no tame] n i 'being for the sake/case of'; DAT I VE O F CO N F RONTAT ION 'toward, with respect to' = ni [tai-site] 'being opposed to, confronted with '-as in haha ni sinsetu da 'is kind to mother', sa ke ni yowai 'is easi ly affected by drink', kei ken ni tobosli n 'is wanting in experience', kei ken ni tomu 'abounds in experience'.
Equ ivalent to l iterary suru nari, not to be confused with nari 'they say .. ') for that is said by d irect nominal ization s tnof da : Gakkoo e i ku da = Gakkoo e i ku no da. 336) . 341 ) N i igata) , nai ga dee = nai no de 'since I have none' (Zhs 3. 45 we find atu i n i ) . 1 1 The use of ga ni for purpose, l i ke the standard use of no n i , may be treated as ell ip sis ( see p. 27 1 . From I shikawa these are reported : iku ga ya tee = i ku no da to ( itte) 'saying I wou ld go' (Zhs 3.